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You dont pick up an ice cube. Everything is warm to the touch. I like the idea of the savings and dependability Newark, DE vykonsales adv-power. Smyers Co. Pittsburgh, PA vykonsales smyers. Indianapolis, IN vykonsales jacksoncontrol.
Minneapolis, MN vykonsales minvalco. Dallas, TX vykonsales tempconsys. Hawthorne, NJ vykonsales usginc. The heat pumps on the roof were very old and the HVAC system was completely outdated. With newer equipment, we knew we could achieve greater energy efciency.
A rst design had to be redone, as it exceeded the school districts budget for the project, but the second system design stayed within the boundaries. Tres West designed the HVAC system to include high-efciency gas furnaces with sealed combustion and units located in the mechanical mezzanine level of the school.
The areas of the school that required cooling were tted with split system DX cooling. The air distribution system incorporated semi-displacement ventilation, and supply registers were integrated into the classroom cabinetwork. The original system design included a specication for insulated galvanized steel HVAC ductwork.
Because of this, the school district decided to. The engineers from Tres West were especially impressed that the ToughGard Duct Board would handle airow at 5, fpm, was treated with an anti-microbial coating and had a water repellant inner liner, said Bob Greeno, co-owner and designer of DBSF. The inner liner would also greatly reduce the amount of berglass particles that could enter the airstream. The properties of this material would help to ensure good indoor air quality for the students at Reeves Middle School.
After installing the mechanical and electrical equipment, the crew focused on the berglass ductwork. We just had to learn how to communicate with the duct board fabricator and how to draw up our duct ttings, so they knew what we wanted them to build, said Bill Schmidtke, president of CHC.
Our crew caught on quickly, and they learned all the tricks that go into working with duct board. They got very procient with making eld modications. Niagara is a complete management and control solution that lets you orchestrate the building automation, energy, and security functions of any facility using a standard web browser.
Its a unified software platform that integrates diverse systems and devices regardless of manufacturer or communications protocol and connects them to. Today, there are more than 83, instances of Niagara operating in more 6, installations worldwide in applications that include: energy management, building automation, M2M, telecommunications, security automation, lighting control, industrial automation, maintenance repair operations, service bureaus, convergence retailing, and total facilities management all giving you improved operational efficiencies, reduced costs, and greater returns.
These channels were connected to the ceiling with a network of metal straps on each side. The ease of the material handling alone made the duct board worthwhile. Its simply a much easier material to. I believe that the new mechanical and electrical system will be a more efcient one for Reeves Middle School, he said. Also, it will promote better indoor air quality for the students and faculty, which was one of our top goals in the project. With 27 classrooms, the newly refurbished Reeves Middle School opened in September, accommodate more than students grades six through eight with 27 classrooms.
When a building project becomes a cover story in USA Today, you know theres a story to be told. The project is being built as an example of one of the largest green urban-redevelopment projects worldwide. Among the worlds most environmentally conscious locales, people in the city of Portland are doing their best to make a statement. South Waterfront, still in the midst of major ongoing construction, is located on the west bank of the Willamette River.
Its a planned community of high-rise condominiums and shops, restaurants, theaters, and museums connected to downtown by Portlands streetcar system. Several high-rise condos are completed and occupied, and two other major condo developments are nearing completion. All of the buildings have at least one thing in common: each features a ClimateMaster water loop heat pump WLHP heating and cooling system, with on-site boiler and cooling tower.
ClimateMasters Tranquility energy-efcient equipment ts the need at South Waterfront because the developers there are pursuing LEED Gold or Silver certications for all of the structures. One of the most prominent benets to residents and businesses at South Waterfront are substantially lower average energy costs.
This is a result of the efciencies designed into the WLHP systems incorporated into the basic layout of each of the condos. Get guaranteed higher efficiency from the most trusted and respected name in boilers. The high combustion efficiency results from a uniquely designed integrated extended surface heat extractor. These boilers feature an industry leading 7 sq ft of heating surface per boiler horsepower.
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Chili Ave. All of the high-rise condos in this Portland development feature a water loop heat pump heating and cooling system, with on-site boiler and cooling tower, which have helped the developers pursue LEED certification. First, energy efciency.
Secondly, these units are among the least obtrusive, acoustically, he added. Were not at all surprised that the equipment was selected at least partially on a noise-abatement basis, added Kevin Marple, vice president of Benz Air Engineering Co. Beyond the noise factor, theres the key challenge involved in designing systems to work in high-rise buildings.
Its not so much a challenge for the water source heating and cooling system as it is for the domestic water supply, said Lin. As the building gets higher, obviously the static water-pressure conditions change. You still have to provide the big building loop with vertical pipes, basically, connecting all of the zones together. There are other reasons that water source heat pumps make a lot of sense, Lin said.
We dont have heat rejection within the living quarters. So we extract heat from the heat pump, or put it back in based on the need. We also have the ability to transfer energy. Its not uncommon during the swing temperature days for one side of the building to be in the heating mode while the other side is in cooling mode.
With this mechanical system, thermal energy is moved from one side of the building to the other without having to add additional energy to the loop. Yet, the boiler and tower are in the off mode. This saves a lot of energy. During extreme days whether heating or cooling you have the means of adding heat through the gas-red boilers or you take the heat out through the big cooling tower to cool down to the loop temperature, he added.
North Point office complex debugs its cooling systems with self-cleaning filters. Facilities personnel are regularly called upon to debug problems in their HVAC systems. In some cases, the thermostats need resetting. Sometimes the registers need to be adjusted. At North Point, a two-building, ,sq-ft ofce complex.
We get mayies a couple times a year and they would plug up the strainers on all the oors, said maintenance engineer Brad Schindler. The rst one built was the North Point Ofce Building, or North Point I, a ,sq-ft, seven-story, irregularly shaped building featuring triangular oor plans.
Joining the two is a covered pedestrian bridge. Both buildings provide tenants such as the HMO Kaiser Permanente and consulting rm Watson Wyatt with an unobstructed view of Clevelands inner harbor and the lake beyond. Three pumps one on standby send the water to the compressor units inside the tower. Each oor has two Trane ton units. At times, the water piped from the tower is enough, but each oor unit also has three compressors that are staged to provide additional cooling as the weather demands.
The water system worked well under normal operating conditions, however, a couple times a year the mayies would hit. And while in that case they were drawn to the bright lights, they also wreak havoc on HVAC systems. They mob the place, said Schindler. We get piles and piles of them. While the janitors would take care of the dead bugs lying around the property, the engineering crew had to deal with all those.
According to Marple, there are about heat pump systems in the Meriwether complex, one of the condo developments. There are 2-ton, 4-ton, and 5-ton units in both vertical and horizontal congurations. For each high-rise building, a heating and cooling capacity of to 1, tons is needed. Always functional. No cables to bind and lock up.
Licensed to United Enertech Corp. Patent Pending. Our technological developments are not common knowledge The chilled water HVAC system at this Cleveland office building worked well under normal operating conditions. However, a couple times a year, gnat-like bugs called mayflies caused havoc on its HVAC systems, resulting in significant maintenance efforts. Installation of self-cleaning stainless steel filters zapped the bug problem. Each unit would only take about 10 to 15 min to clean out, but when you have 40 units on 20 oors, that time adds up.
More signicant was the way they interrupted the schedule. The big problem is that it was usually an emergency, said Schindler. When units start going down, we have to drop everything and go clean them out to keep the units running. The idea is to keep the tenants happy.
We liked that the lter cleans itself so we dont have to do anything, said Schindler. The Tekleen lters incorporate a unique self-cleaning mechanism that allows an uninterrupted ow of ltered water even while the cleaning takes place and uses a fraction of the water that normal back-ushing requires.
Tekleen lters also use stainless steel as the standard screen material, rather than a special order option, resulting in a longer-lasting lter. North Point staff selected the Tekleen ABWP lter, which as a L stainless steel body and a stainless steel lter with mil holes. The unit has in. It was designed to lter 3, gpm from the cooling towers two 1,gpm pumps.
They do still check the strainers when doing routine preventive maintenance, but there is very little found in them. Heres how to avoid it. After spending a few months talking about existing building commissioning at the end of , I want to shift back to new construction commissioning with a tricky and delicate topic. The situation is one which is rare but not non-existent.
When it does occur, it is extremely frustrating for all involved. This may happen when FPT demonstrates that the systems are performing as specified in the contract documents but do not meet one or more of the performance metrics initially defined by the owner for the commissioned systems. In the design-bid-build project delivery model, the contractors have fulfilled their obligations, and yet the commissioning professional has identified acceptance criteria which have not been achieved.
It is typically the responsibility of the designers to define what drawing and specification modifications are required perhaps through a changeorder in order to meet the owners criteria. This is a relatively infrequent situation, less likely to occur the earlier commissioning is introduced to a project. In most cases, the design engineer is actively involved in evaluating the problem and working with the project team to identify the least disruptive, most effective solution in a timely fashion.
Of course, if the solution is easy and costs nothing to implement, this situation almost never escalates into a bigger problem. This occurs at a time when the team is anxious to be finished with their work, released from further obligations, and approved for final payment.
Realistically, if the problem is identified as being a design issue i. As we all know, however, design and construction issues are hardly ever black and white in this era of integrated building systems. Even if an independent commissioning professional identifies a problem as being a design issue, the design engineers can put off active engagement for weeks while they direct the contractors to check this and check that without a clear plan for resolution and action.
If the designers finally come to the point of agreeing there needs to be a design change, it can be another lengthy period of time before that design change is produced. The more costly the change, the longer it will take to materialize.
In extreme cases, a satisfactory design solution may only come after a series of less expensive trial solutions. To tho those se of u us s wo work rkin ing g on b beh ehal alff of the the own owner er,, ther th ere e is a s sen ense se of of a wait aitin ing g ga g me to s see ee whe when n th the e ow owne ner r wi will ll tir tire e of the effort.
To those of us working on behalf of the owner, there is a sense of a waiting game to see when the owner will tire of the effort. The following are some tips on best practices that should help minimize the risk of this worst-case scenario on commissioned projects. Start commissioning early in the design phase: Document unambiguous and measurable owners project requirements.
Perform commissioning design reviews starting no later than the. Require written responses from the design engineers to the commissioning professionals feedback and findings, including: Design reviews. Submittal reviews. Construction site observations. Functional test results.
Require firm action commitments and timelines from each team member. Chaska, MN. With ToughGard 2 textile duct liner and ToughGard R rotary duct liner, CertainTeed offers two excellent ways to make buildings more energy efficient and to help your customers save serious green on energy bills. They are readily available in the industrys widest range of sizes, thicknesses and densities.
Please visit us at AHR Expo booth Whether compelled by mandate or good intentions, buyers might find the shelves empty. The premium for doing so, however, may soon rise significantly as demand for such green power begins to overwhelm the supply. Smart firms wishing to continue or initiate such purchasing may wish to plan ahead to avoid big price bumps. Whether to satisfy a mission statement, polish a corporate image, or simply to help save the world, such purchasing is growing rapidly.
Those buying green power have found pricing to be increasingly volatile and varied, depending on a variety of factors. The major source of new renewable power supply has been wind, with half of all new U. Prices are affected as new plants come on-line. In a few cases, we are even seeing different shades of green: some RECs are going for a higher price because they originate from projects or organizations having a positive cachet e. As that new demand for renewable power ramps up, it w ill dwarf present purchasing, and may overwhelm the supply.
As we all recall from Economics , when demand approaches or exceeds supply, price rises. Green power is no exception. The chairman of Northeast Utilities, a major New England utility, recently warned that region may be short several thousand megawatts of renewables during the next eight years as local RPS and some emissions rules come into effect. In Massachusetts, this shortage is already pushing up REC prices to the states cap. If, however, new supply begins to falter, as occurred several years ago when federal wind power subsidies expired for a time, the crunch could become severe and sustained as some wind projects come to a halt.
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Those credits are presently scheduled to expire at the end of The NREL study made an especially interesting point: If a significant number of electric utilities and other electricity suppliers choose to bank RECs for future RPS compliance, excess supplies may not be available for voluntary markets. Furthermore, if generators choose to hold RECs in anticipation of future regulation, this would also reduce total supply.
Taking that thought a step further, an impending crunch could be seen as an investment opportunity by financial speculators known euphemistically in the energy biz as the non-commercial sector who have, in the past, hoarded futures as a way to bid up pricing and then make a killing when prices spike. Such a strategy could further exacerbate renewable power pricing volatility and raise near-term pricing.
A company or institution that publicly promised to buy green power could then find it necessary to break that commitment, or pay dearly to continue such purchasing. PLAN AHEAD If your firm or organization is considering or has already made a commitment to buy green power, consider a forward purchase now to avoid price spikes around the corner.
Doing so may also be a good way to hedge against general power price hikes. And remember: just as a pound of feathers weighs as much as a pound of iron, avoiding a pound of carbon emitted in Brazil, Wyoming, or New York each has the same effect on climate, so it pays to shop around. If you dont know how, work with an experienced energy procurement specialist to find the lowest-cost way to keep your firms promise to go green. ES Audin is president of Energywiz, Inc.
Most engineers know that when you change the temperature of a fluid, its volume changes. This fact is most important concerning hydronic systems, where temperature can change and systems are closed to the atmosphere. The typical example is a closed-loop hot water heating system where temperature can vary over F over the season. The typical solution for this fluid expansion is to select a tank with the admittance volume to permit the hydronic medium to expand while the system maintains a similar pressure.
This component is called an expansion tank, and several types and piping locations are recommended for its position in the hydronic loop. This permits fluid to be pushed to the top of the system, allowing for the removal of unwanted air.
In some cases where the pumps are located at the top of the system, the positive pressure is needed to meet the net positive suction requirements of the pumps. There are many rules of thumb about where to install the expansion tank in the system.
Expansion tanks are not always at the point of common pressure, not always at the pump suction, are not always used for air elimination, or at the point of lowest pressure, or installed where the pressurized makeup water is connected. Consequently, the expansion tank can be installed at any point in the system, and it will meet the needs of expanding volume.
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A pr pres essu suri rize ized d blad add dder der tank k can b be locatted d on tth he fflloor,, to p pro rovi vide de ffor or e eas asie ier r in inst stal alla lati tion on and structural savings. Over the years, systems requiring expansion tanks have evolved; many are now variable flow, have antifreeze in addition to water, and new tank technologies are available. Proper location must also consider structural and annual maintenance requirements. Originally in hydronic systems, vented tank vessels were set above the highest piping point in the system.
At this location, they aided in air removal since air is less dense and collects naturally at this point. Air vent piping from several high points can be routed to the tank for air removal. The pressure of the system is set based upon the tanks elevation above the system, since it is vented to atmosphere. Installation conditions could affect providing overflow piping on a vented expansion tank. The design challenge with this style tank is to find a location inside the building that will properly pressurize the system specifically with 10 to 12 ft of elevation above the highest piping loop.
In many systems, where the proper space and elevation are available, a vented expansion tank may be considered. Multiple tanks can be configured for large systems requiring greater expansion volume. A popular design for small systems is for the tank to be located between the boiler and the pump suction, and to install an air removal fitting at the piping connection to assist air that has escaped the cushion, to be recaptured and returned to the expansion tank.
When used with an air removal fitting, closed tanks should be mounted above the piping system to permit air to rise into the tank. This application is widely used in residential systems. This style tank should be installed near a drain, as they commonly lose the air cushion and must be emptied of fluid to restore operation. Expansion tanks are available with internal bladders that separate the air and fluid with a membrane. This prevents the air cushion from escaping and permits many options for locating the tank.
The tank can be set at any elevation relative to the piping system. Multiple tanks can be configured where desired. The air pressure must be charged while the tank is empty; therefore, it is still important to consider drain and air admittance needs during design.
A pressurized bladder tank can be located on the floor, to provide for easier installation and structural savings. The membrane separates the air cushion from the fluid, which is desirable with many antifreezes such as glycol. Air removal is provided independent of the installation of the expansion tank when bladder-style tanks are utilized. Selecting the style of expansion tanks is important if they are to be combined with an air removal design.
Bladder-style expansion tanks should not be used with air removal fittings; they can be installed anywhere within the system where space allows, if they meet the pressure requirements for fluid temperature and volume admittance. The air pressure can be adjusted as required by the system pressure at the point of connection to the system. Tanks are available in many sizes and pressure ratings and have. What do you mean, What master plan?
After many years of insights and information, our good friend Ken Sinclair is taking a break from column writing, although he will continue to be a regular contributor both online at AutomatedBuildings. And that leads us to the new beginning of this column with joint authorship from Ira Goldschmidt and myself. Both Ira and I are well-recognized in the area of building automation, controls, sustainable design, and intelligent buildings.
Our intent with the column is to continue the great work that Ken has started, but to add our insight as designers who are actively working with owners on the challenges of planning and delivering projects on a day-to-day basis. We recognize that the design and delivery of control systems and intelligent buildings systems is seen as a challenge, but we believe it is essential for the delivery of sustainable and high-performance buildings.
We intend to use this column to share our experiences with Engineered Systems readers and hopefully make controls and automation a less daunting challenge. A great general once said, We dont plan to fail, but often fail to plan. Not surprisingly, many of the failures we see are due to a lack of a plan. So what is involved in developing a plan? Paul: One of the most important elements in starting a plan is to understand how the owner operates his facilities today and how he would like to operate them in the future.
Intelligent building systems and integration allow for vast improvements in efficiency, sustainability, and operations. Often, these fit in well with owner goals for sustainability and improved operations. Understanding both where things are today, and where they need to go, is invaluable in selecting systems and direction. Ira: It is also important to start the planning process by documenting what is in place today. This includes looking at existing systems, including HVAC control, lighting control, security, energy metering, and associated systems.
For each of these systems we look at how well they are operating and at what changes are already under consideration. The documentation usually starts with a review of existing documents then includes a walkthrough to verify what is on-site. When we complete this documentation, we are looking for the vintage of systems, what protocols are in use, and any maintenance or operating problems.
What follows this initial stage of data gathering? Paul: Analysis! We typically perform both a technical and financial analysis. This includes clarifying and prioritizing goals, budgeting upgrade costs, clarifying benefits, and researching options.
The analysis phase often takes several stages, each of which will look at various options, refine them, and prioritize. Ira: For some owners, this is a fairly straightforward process. For others, it can be more complex, involving changes to networks, systems, Otherwise,, new proje j cts can beco be come me a an n ex exte tens nsio ion n of tthe he exis ex isti ting ng lleg egac acy y an and d do n not ot m mov ove e the h owner toward d llongg term goalls.
One of the challenges in this process is that for large institutional owners, many different groups may be involved. As consultants we need to understand the terminology, perspective, and needs of each of these groups. The ideal solution works well for all groups. So you gather information and then analyze, what follows this?
Paul: Once we have the information and the analysis completed, we typically work toward the development of a master plan. This plan identifies what is in place today plus what should be left in place, upgraded, or replaced.
The plan typically contains budgets and schedules for recommended changes. Ira: One of the nice things about this type of planning is that many owners have ongoing upgrade and construction programs. The use of a master plan allows them to design the next project so that it fits into the master plan. Without this type of plan in place, new projects can become an extension of the existing legacy or the start of a new legacy and do not move the owner toward long-term goals.
So then youre done? Paul: For most owners, there are several follow-up steps. These include the development of new master documents or specifications, design development guides, and the development of project specific designs. Ira: Often, we will take the master plan and then pilot selected elements to prove out the approach. The broader approach can then be utilized on follow up projects. The formation of Building Intelligence Group provided them the ability to work together professionally providing assistance to owners with the planning, design and development of Intelligent Building Systems.
Building Intelligence Group provides services for clients worldwide including leading Universities, Corporations, and Developers. More information can be found at www. Two independent energy studies. Acutherm is the only manufacturer with thousands of successful projects using Therma-Fuser VAV Diffusers in full system application. For over 30 years, our ongoing innovations continue to provide more energy-efcient, comfortable and sustainable building environments.
Create system flow diagram to assess static pressure sequence of operation and refrigerant circuit pressure drop. Review control drawings and specifications to confirm unit space temperature setpoints are specified. Review control drawings and specifications to confirm unit remote monitoring and trending are specified for service contractor access.
Has gas service been coordinated with HVAC equipment? Are gas train vents specified? Will there be an extended warranty on the equipment? Have lters been provided with access for replacement? Has gas pressure been specied and provided?
Have fan curves been assessed for optimum performance? Verify that refrigeration piping is complete and correct. Confirm safe access to the equipment. Confirm the manufacturers recommended clearance around equipment. What are the new electrical requirements for the new unit? Is there adequate electrical power to meet new electrical load of all retail spaces? Is there adequate electrical power coming in from the street for all retail units?
Will emergency power be a requirement for the tenants? Are electrical connections tight and secure on both units? Have the fuses and wire sizes been checked and verified? Are there existing electrical code issues that should be addressed at this time? Has consideration been given to future expansion of system? Has pressure testing of ductwork been determined in scope of work?
Has consideration been given to the manufacturers recommended clearance around equipment for service? Refer to the January Back2Basics test for more information pages Refer to equipment manufacturers literature for additional data and requirements. This column is meant to provide some basic guidelines for good design.
Always consult all necessary codes and resources relevant to each particular project. Capacity in your data center is greater than it appears Utilize your stranded capacity with help from APC When you manage a whole building, theres a lot to worry about: building security, lighting, cooling, HVAC.
And all these moving parts need power especially the data center. Sure its no surprise that the data center is consuming more and more of your buildings utility power, which limits your companys ability not only to grow IT, but also to supply power to other parts of the building. Is there a way to combat todays power-hungry data center? Get more efcient with the APC Efcient Enterprise yours in two steps for immediate, measurable results.
Step 1: Its time for a cool change. Why cool an entire room when only certain racks are running hot? The oversized systems brute-force whole-room cooling is inefcient by design and a waste of not only money but valuable power and cooling capacity as well.
And as you well know, this wasted power and cooling could go to good use in other parts of your building. In the Efcient Enterprise model, your cooling moves from general room level cooling to specic, targeted cooling thats right in the row. Plus, modular in-row cooling gets cool air where its needed much more quickly.
Step 2: Harness that stranded capacity We know how hard it is to determine where to place that next server. Let the tools of the Efcient Enterprise nd your stranded capacity -- the power and cooling you know you have, but just cant get to.
APC change and capacity management software gives you visibility across your system, taking the guesswork out of server placement and controlling IT growth. Youll nd and use your available power instead of wondering where it is. Closely coupling the AC with the heat source reduces the distance cold air must travel from 50 feet down to 5 feet , prevents hot exhaust air from mixing with cool air in the room, and allows more targeted precision cooling.
Benet from power efciency by right-sizing your infrastructure so that you pay only for what you need. Reap efciency benets at the component level or aggregate benets at the system level. The MGE Galaxy offers ultra-high availability for lower power ranges, has a compact footprint and is easy and quick to connect. Its clean input current means that the mains supply does not need to be oversized, which can result in considerable savings. With the Efcient Enterprise, youll effectively eliminate thermal and power-driven incidents, and be more agile in meeting IT demands.
Better yet, you can avoid or at least postpone building a new data center because your facility will take up minimal space. In the end, it boils down to this: you need to be as smart as possible with your power. How efficient is your enterprise system? See exactly where you stand take our online Enterprise Efciency Audit today!
Visit www. APCC x Fax It may seem counterintuitive that an electric utility would pay its customers to use less of the only commodity it sells. However, many factors are causing both electric and gas utilities as well as governments and other agencies to support programs that help customers do just that.
The need to alleviate existing transmission and distribution bottlenecks, regulations limiting the construction of new generating capacity, and the growing urgency to reduce the combustion of fossil fuels and associated greenhouse gases have made conservation a vital part of satisfying any new energy demand. Rebates and other incentives to encourage energy efficiency hereinafter, rebates have been around for more than three decades, starting with the first oil shock in the mid-seventies.
Since then, rebate funding levels have varied from year to year, increasing as ratepayers and regulators reacted to rising energy prices, and decreasing as utility deregulation in the mid-nineties caused attention to shift from the demand side to the supply side. Today, funding levels are once again on the rise as the utility sector redoubles its efforts to address both grid reliability and global warming concerns. This upward trend in funding will likely continue for the foreseeable future.
Legislatures across the country continue to set aggressive goals for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. States with a history of offering robust rebates could reach even higher funding levels as they struggle to meet those goals.
Moreover, similar pressures are causing many states that never had significant rebate programs to create them. Some rebates broaden the appeal of new commercially available but expensive technologies. Others make incremental improvements in efficiency more affordable. Rebates can help pay for energy-related products e. In most cases, a rebate lowers the projects first cost, shortening the simple payback period and making that project easier to approve.
The goal of this new column in Engineered Systems is to keep readers informed about rebate-related issues and trends. Each quarter we will examine at least one energy-related technology and provide insight into applicable funding sources. In this first installment, we address motors, an important, yet often overlooked, category of energy-consuming equipment.
Motor-related rebate programs vary widely. Assistance can take the form of financial incentives that help offset the incremental cost of higher A mo moto tor r s fi firs rstt co cost st iis s ty typi pica call lly y dwar dw arfe fed d by tthe he v val alue ue o off th the e ener en ergy gy r req equi uire ired d to to r run un it it ov over er iitts ts liffeti li time. TABLE 1. Breakdown of program types. Most organizations surveyed offer more than one type of program. Some programs simply offer education and outreach activities that highlight the potential for significant savings.
A recent survey conducted by the Consortium for Energy Efficiency CEE , provides insight into the variability and popularity of various motor program designs Table 1. Several respondents e. Programs that offer financial assistance vary in how they determine incentive eligibility.
Some of the CEE respondents cited. Others offer prescriptive incentive payments for motors that meet CEE-developed specifications and consider motors outside this range on a custom basis. Some specify minimum kWh savings requirements. And some base their incentive payments on the magnitude of the reduction in energy usage compared to a certain baseline. Motor efficiency programs can be regional, statewide, or service-territory-specific.
Sometimes a program moves from one category to another as it evolves. For example, the MotorUp program began as a regional initiative across New England but is now administered on a more local basis by a program manager at each participating utility. As of the end of , the MotorUp program had processed over 8, rebate. However, increased energy efficiency may not be enough to justify motor replacement on its own. If a motors load were highly variable, installing an ASD could be a cost-effective path to capturing significant savings.
Remember that while the volume of air or water decreases directly with reductions in fan or pump speed, the power consumption of the motor turning that fan or pump decreases with the cube of speed. So, even small reductions in speed can yield significant reductions in power consumption. Today, many utility programs offer ASD incentives for a wide variety of motor applications and customer segments. Some ASD programs go a step further by requiring that any existing throttling device e.
What happened Those applications are now allowing various businesses across New England to save about 2, kW and For more information on utility programs associated with MotorUp, visit www. And to learn more about motor programs offered by CEE members, visit www.
Bringing the perspective that comes with more than 20 years in commercial real estate and 15 years in energy efficiency, Jewell, founder and president of RealWinWin is a national expert of the role of energy-efficiency economics in commercial real estate.
Reach him at mjewell realwinwin. Nowhere is this trend more evident than in New York City, which is home to a large number of environmentally friendly buildings, including the recently completed story New York Times Building. This sweeping plan is designed to enhance New Yorks urban setting by focusing on improving the quality of land, air, water, energy, and transportation.
By design, the high-performance New York Times Building already incorporates a number of energy-efficient features, including an integrated faade management system of dimmable lights and mechanized shades that responds to the suns angle and intensity, an underfloor air distribution system UFAD , on-site cogeneration, and a highly efficient chiller plant that utilizes both centrifugal and absorption chillers.
First published in , it is the largest metropolitan newspaper in the U. Given its impressive history, its no wonder that when the time came to build a new corporate head-. In the spring of , New York Times Company personnel moved into their new offices, which are located in , sq ft on the 2nd through 28th floors. Forest City Ratner owns the remaining , sq ft on floors 29 through 50, as well as 21, sq ft of streetlevel retail space.
Most of that space is already rented out to various tenants. The building officially opened in November Sign of the Times also makes extensive use of daylighting, and the perimeter is dynamically managed to admit maximum natural light without causing thermal discomfort or glare. The shade system and the dimmable lighting controls are fully integrated, so that the shades can be positioned in order to get the maximum daylight in the building with minimum solar contribution to the cooling load, as well as minimum glare on the users computers.
These systems were developed through complex computer modeling as well as an extensively instrumented mockup of a full quarter of a floor using the actual curtain wall, said Mitchell. The exterior of the New York Times Building features low-iron, clear glass that has a transparent effect and a ceramic rod screen that acts as a sun shade and reduces the thermal load. Theyve always been advocates of the latest and greatest technology in their business, and they wanted their building to reflect that.
Theyve also always been very responsible in terms of energy consumption, so this became a collaborative effort. The entire team had a similar mindset of making this a sustainable development. One of the most prominent features of the building involves its exterior, which is made almost entirely of low iron clear glass.
The media strive for transparency of process, so Renzo Piano wanted to capture that essence by designing a building that was as. That transparency is achieved through a curtain wall that is designed with floor-to-ceiling glass on all faades and an exterior ceramic rod screen cantilevered off the glass faade, which acts as a sun shade.
The ceramic rods are arranged on the exterior side of the glass to keep a significant amount of the suns energy from coming directly through the glass and into the space, said Pomerantz. They have aesthetic value as well, but their functional purpose is that of a sunscreen. We spent a tremendous amount of time working with the architects on the arrangement of the ceramic rods to optimize their thermal effectiveness with their aesthetics.
The New York Times Companys space. Heat recovered from the engines provides hot water for the ton absorption chiller in the summer and perimeter heating in the winter. Generating electricity on-site reduces the burden of the utility company to deliver power in the summer months when everyone is using air conditioning.
In addition, the recovered heat is utilized to provide a cooling source that reduces the load on the electric chiller plant, and the engines run cleaner than the utility generation system. Because of difficulties with the local utility provider, Consolidated Edison, the cogeneration plant is not connected to the grid, said Bredehorst.
Its a standalone system with separate distribution in the building. It has the capability to be backed up by on-site diesel generators and the utility itself. The high-efficiency central chilled water plant serves the entire building and consists of five 1,ton electric centrifugal chillers and the single-stage absorption chiller.
The cooling system utilizes highly efficient electric drive chillers, variable flow primary pumping chilled water and condenser water systems, as well as hydronic free cooling and precooling cycles to maximize energy effi-. Advanced control algorithms optimize the operating conditions of the chilled water and condenser water systems. Heat for the building is provided via high-pressure steam purchased from Consolidated Edison.
After extensive analysis and negotiation, this proved to be the most costeffective solution as compared to generating heat on-site. Low-pressure steam is distributed to the steam coils of each AHU in the cellar and podium roof and is also used to produce hot water for the perimeter heating system.
The perimeter heating system consists of fan-powered boxes with heating coils at each floor. The low-pressure steam is also used to serve the humidifiers on the floors occupied by The New York Times Company. In deciding to adopt this technology, as opposed to the traditional overhead system utilized throughout every other high-rise building in New York City, The New York Times Company did its homework, said Cooper.
Their design team went on a trip across the country and around the world to look at underfloor air installations in commercial office buildings and other types of facilities in order to learn more about their design and construction. We talked to a lot of contractors and owners, and we asked them what worked and what did not work where did they find problems with constructing and operating underfloor air systems?
We talked about sequences of construction, how to best seal the raised floor plenum so we wouldnt lose air through the walls or core areas of the building, like the elevator shafts. Photo courtesy of Nic Lehoux. They also learned a new way to distribute air in large spaces such as conference rooms.
Swirl diffusers are typically used in a UFAD system to introduce air into the space from the raised floor plenum. However, in large meeting room spaces with high occupancies and loads, the required number of swirl diffusers becomes aesthetically unappealing. We took an approach that we saw in a large NATO auditorium in Europe, and we re-engineered it with Gensler for the special spaces of The New York Times Company so that there are no visible diffusers in the raised floor of their board room and other large multi-purpose and conference rooms, said Cooper.
The floor tile itself is perforated, and the carpet is designed with a special backing to allow the supply air to percolate right up through the carpeting into the space. When youre in the space, you have no idea where the air is coming from, but it feels great. While the UFAD system made economic sense for the spaces owned and occupied by The New York Times Company, there was no tenant demand for this advanced system for the rest of the building.
Therefore, the rental office floors are provided with chilled water air-handling systems and traditional overhead duct distribution. Outdoor air for ventilation of New York Times Company floors is provided by cen-.
The outdoor air is fully dehumidified centrally so that the floor-by-floor chilled water units can typically run with dry coils, minimizing maintenance and maximizing IAQ. Sensors monitoring CO2 levels occupancy and VOCs air quality in the return air also positively control the amount of outside air that is delivered to each floor. This demand controlled ventilation strategy minimizes the energy expended conditioning outside air while maintaining ideal indoor air quality, said Cooper.
For the New York Times Company floors, interior spaces use swirl diffusers for air distribution, and perimeter spaces are provided with floor mounted linear bar grilles located near the window line. For the rental office floors, standard overhead diffusers will be employed with linear diffusers along the perimeter ceiling. Sign of the Times controls, and optimizes the operation of the HVAC systems and life safety functions in the building.
We talked to a lot of contractors and owners,, and d we asked them what worked and what did not work where did they find problems with constructing and operating underfloor air systems? We talked about sequences of construction, and how to best seal the raised floor plenum so we wouldnt lose air through the walls or core areas of the building, like the elevator shafts, said Mitchell.
An underfloor air distribution system was used in the New York Times building. To avoid using swirl diffusers in large meeting room spaces, the floor tile instead was perforated and the carpet designed with a special backing to allow the supply air in. The system also monitors critical alarms of the building emergency generator and fuel oil system.
The lighting, security, and motorized shade systems are separate from the BAS, and each system serves only its individual function. The lighting control system by Lutron provides dimmable light fixtures throughout, allowing multiple light levels depending on daylight entering the building in the open office space. Individual offices and conference rooms are also provided with local switches, allowing each department to set its light level according to preference.
The motorized shade system by Mechoshade is totally automatic based upon the direction of the sun, solar heat gain within the space, as well as sun glare on the work surface. Sensors have been placed within the interior of the building as well as on the roof of the building to control the system.
Occupants within the office can manually control the shades within their zone via local touchscreens in the open office area or local switch within the individual office. It was a pleasure working for such enlightened clients, said Cooper. In planning the owner-occupied portion of the building, The New York Times Company was diligent in vetting and embracing new technologies and approaches, so it was a great experience.
After over a decade, Turpin is wrapping up a long, successful tenure as contributing editor for ES. In any printing facility, humidifiers are the workhorse that maintain paper moisture content, minimize paper breaks in presses and safe guard against static in computers and control systems.
Whether it is meeting the critical deadlines of a large daily newspaper or the dayto-day operations of a quick copy shop, NORTEC has successfully done it all. Ken Sinclair, editor and owner of AutomatedBuildings. We provided our eighth year of free education sessions and were joined by Mr. In addition, BACnet news came from Rob Zivney, vice president of marketing with Hirsch Electronics, when he said, It is interesting that the first comprehensive access control standard to emerge comes from the building controls industry.
I know that there are many endusers with existing BACnet installations who are excited about the possibility of adding access control to their systems. These are significant industry events as they continue the necessary convergence of traditional building automation with the electrical grid, physical security, and the IT industries. Evolving standards and GridWise thinking are fundamentally changing the way in which we design, operate and use our buildings.
Jared Malarsky of ARCs market research team reached this conclusion, Based on this years AHR show, the question is no longer whether to automate, but how to ensure the greatest return on this worthwhile investment. Some of these concepts have now been documented in a chapter industry hardcover book titled Web-Based Enterprise Energy and Building Automation Systems.
The book is about convergence, connectivity, and the new business paradigm that is creating, and shares the thoughts of several of the folks writing for our publications. Over the past several years, the building industry has invested heavily in the automation of speed controls to achieve energy savings.
Unleashing this equipment to become an interactive part of the electrical grid in a GridWise www. Mc Gowan has helped evolve and elevate our industry from arriving on the scene as building integrators and morphing into grid integrators. Unleashing this quiipmentt to become an eq interactive part of the electrical grid in a GridWise www. Quite simply, DR allows users and utilities to work together to address one of the most critical challenges of the electricity business: peak demand.
DR offers a way for utilities to hedge against how fast they will have to build infrastructure by offering an incentive to users who are willing to reduce load at critical times. Technology is the key to making this happen as BAS can implement a wide variety of strategies to achieve the load reduction. A few of these strategies including pre-cooling before the demand period, using thermal storage and integrating CHP, and emergency generation to reduce electricity that is needed from the grid.
With DR, the incentives often take the form of money that can be used in part to pay for capital improvements that will support the demand response strategy, and in part can be taken in cash by the customer to reward their participation. Any ideas?
Tor Browser has set security. This means that the intermediate certificate store is only in memory. If you change this value to false, it will be possible to add new certificates. Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Stack Overflow for Teams — Collaborate and share knowledge with a private group. Create a free Team What is Teams?
Learn more. Asked 5 years ago. Active 3 years, 5 months ago. Viewed 3k times. Improve this question. Jake Michel. Jake Michel Jake Michel 11 1 1 silver badge 3 3 bronze badges. Problem sloved by changing in about:config — Jake Michel. Which system? Add a comment.
Active Oldest Votes. The OP gave the answer in the comments. Improve this answer. IMHO it can be a possibility for data leak and fingerprinting.
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